Black History Month: The Black Prophets

Color doesn’t matter. To Allaah, God. But it does to a lot of people. This article seeks to counter racism and prejudice against dark skin by showing that according to Christian, Jewish and Islamic sources, some of the greatest men and women in history were black.


Color doesn’t matter.

“And among His Signs is the Creation of the Heavens and the Earth, and the Variation of your Languages and your Colors. Verily in that are Signs for those who know.” (Qur-aan 30.22)

Prophet Muhammad (sAaws) said, “Verily Allah does not look to your bodies nor to your faces but He looks to your hearts,” and he pointed towards the heart with his fingers. (Sahih Muslim Book 032, Hadith Number 6220.)

Skin color does NOT matter.

To Allaah (God).

But to most people most of the time it does. We’re obsessed with it. Racism against Blacks of African descent is only one example. Racism against dark skin exists in every culture. It also exists within races, as light-skinned members are automatically considered better-looking and more desirable for marriage. Arabs, South Asians, and African-Americans are all guilty of this. There’s the concept of mejor la raza prevalent in Latin America. (Seen Sammy Sosa lately?) “Fairness” creams, with their commercials of happier, more successful newly-lightened people are the rage in Asia. African diasporans the world over spend billions straightening and lightening their hair (the point sometimes is to make it look naturally straight, as if to say “I’m not Black enough to have to straighten my hair.”)

Black people all over the world, from the Americas to Cambodia have been infected with feelings of inferiority and self-hatred, and relatively lighter-skinned peoples are equally convinced of their superiority and inherent beauty and goodness. These are not only popular sentiments, but academia itself has been compromised. History has been covered up and re-written for various reasons, to justify slavery, genocide and colonization, and after that to maintain the status quo.

But what if everyone knew that some of the most influential people in history were black? That the prophets respected by people of all races the world over, were in fact, African in appearance? No need to re-read; you got it right the first time: Abraham, Joseph, Moses, the Hebrews, Jesus, and even Paul, were all black. Christian, Jewish and Islamic sources, along with voluminous historical research, all corroborate these claims. It is little taught, but well-known: the prophets were black.

Islamic Sources

The Qur-aan does not generally describe appearances in detail, because there is a greater focus on the “moral” of the story than its details. However, in the Hadeeth literature (authenticated sayings and actions of Prophet Muhammad recorded by his companions), there are some descriptions of various prophets.

Moses was of brown complexion, straight hair and tall stature as if he was from the people of Az-Zutt.” (Bukhaari Volume 4, Book 55, Number 648)

The Prophet (Muhammad) said “The prophet Moses was brown, a tall person as if from the people of the tribe of Shanu’a. Jesus was a curly-haired man of moderate height…” (Bukhaari Volume 4, Book 55, Number 608)

Prophet Muhammad: “While sleeping near the Ka’ba last night, I saw in my dream a man of brown color the best one can see amongst brown color and his hair was long that it fell between his shoulders. His hair was lank and water was dribbling from his head and he was placing his hands on the shoulders of two men while circumambulating the Kaba. I asked, ‘Who is this?’ They replied, ‘This is Jesus, son of Mary.’” (Bukhaari Volume 4, Book 55, Number 649)

Judeo-Christian Sources

The Old and New Testament(1), in concert with sound historical research, make it explicit that Abraham, and the Israelites who were his descendants all the way to Mary and Jesus, were black in appearance. Paul, while not a prophet, had an unparalleled influence on Christianity. He was black, too.

The following two articles are too long to paste here. But they contain a detailed analysis of the Old and New Testament scriptures (no reference to which version), along with photographs, paintings, statues and reliefs and references to published research.  Click the title to read.

The Physical Appearance of Ancient Israel, part I:

Ham; Cush, Mizraim, Phut, & Canaan; Joseph, the Hebrews, and the Egyptians; Moses, the Hebrews and the Egyptians; Paul of Tarsus; Mary & Jesus

The Physical Appearance of Ancient Israel, part II:

The Ethiopian Hebrew baptized by Philip; The Hebrews in Antioch: Simeon that was called Niger, Lucius of Cyrene, etc.; Paul of Tarsus; Abraham, Nimrod, son of Cush, the Chaldeans (ancient Iraq)


The list of great black ancient figures and civilizations is not limited to prophets and saints, nor even to Africa. In fact, many original or at least pre-historical civilizations were what you would call black, according to the way they chose to depict themselves, as well as published historical research.

But the point here is not to establish one race as superior to another. There is no “pure race”. There are no “chosen people”:
“O people! We Created you from a Male and a Female, and Made you into Nations and Tribes, that you may know each other. Verily, the most honorable of you before Allaah are the most pious of you. (Qur-aan 49.13)

Allah’s Apostle was asked, “Who is the most honorable amongst the people?” He replied, “The most Allah fearing.” (Bukhari Volume 4, Book 55, Number 597)

So these facts are here because truth is an amaana, a trust that must be discharged. Black History is world history. It is my history, your history, everyone’s history. Go to your children’s schools and start demanding this. Sit down with your children and teach this. Stop hiding your hair texture- Black men and women- and invest in a new, real self-esteem. Tear the idols of black hatred down from your minds. Petition black artists to stop Europeanizing their appearances. Protest films with inaccurate depictions of great civilizations of old. Make films of your own.

Celebrate Black History all year, not just the shortest month of the Gregorian calendar…

(1) The body of narrations originating from Judeo-Christian traditions, rather than from revealed books such as the Scrolls of Ibraaheem (Abraham), the Taura (Torah), Zabuur (Psalms) and Injeel (Gospel) are known as the Israa-eeliyaat in Islamic theology. They are mostly non-biblical explanatory stories and traditions (in Hebrew: midrashim) giving extra information or interpretation about events or individuals recorded in the Hebrew scriptures.

Muslims classify such narrations in three categories:
1) Those considered to be true because the Qur-aan or narrations of Muhammad confirm them.
2) Those considered to be false, because the Qur-aan or narrations of Muhammad reject them.
3) Those not known to be either true or false.

So the Islamic position on Judeo-Christian narrations and what is left of the revealed books could be summed up with the following narrations of Prophet Muhammad:

Narrated ‘Abdullah bin ‘Amr: The Prophet said, “Convey (my teachings) to the people even if it were a single sentence, and tell others the stories of People of Israel (which have been taught to you), for it is not sinful to do so. And whoever tells a lie on me intentionally, will surely take his place in the (Hell) Fire.” (Sahih Bukhari. Hadith 3202)

Narrated Abu Huraira: The people of the Scripture (Jews) used to recite the Torah in Hebrew and they used to explain it in Arabic to the Muslims. On that Allah’s Messenger said, “Do not believe the people of the Scripture or disbelieve them, but say: “We believe in Allah and what is revealed to us.” (Qur-aan 2.136) (Sahih Bukhari, Hadith 4125)


8 comments on “Black History Month: The Black Prophets

  1. I don’t believe any teachings concerning the Hebrews on that there color was white ,evengelicals and all other white religions across North America teach that Christ’s,marry, Joseph,Paul,the apostles,moses etc .We’re white not black. They combat all across Africa,Asia,South America,lying and directing all attention to be directed towards the so called Jews that live in invaded Palestine. And not directing sound doctrine by saying that the original Hebrews live in Africa and that they left 300 years after Chrirsts death.There is ton off documentation that these holy prophets off God were black.These white supremecists invest millions of Dollars going around the world investing in deceiving people and lying in teaching false doctrines.Every scholar knows that the white complected so called Jews in invaded Palestine, they crossed over from all parts of Arabia and started to say they were Jews.They did not care about Gods convenat when he forbids any body joining Israel with out his consent. Many times the Arabians were cool with the Israel’s and even brought them over to the Israeli camps and God will tell them to kick them out.

    • Mike Fillon writes:

      “Jesus (would have had) dark rather than light-colored eyes…in keeping with Jewish tradition, he was bearded as well…While most religious artists have put long hair on Christ, most biblical scholars believe that it was probably short with tight curls …

      From an analysis of skeletal remains, archaeologists had firmly established that the average build of a Semite male at the time of Jesus was 5 ft. 1 in., with an average weight of about 110 pounds. Since Jesus worked outside as a carpenter until he was about 30 years old…(his) face was probably weather-beaten, which would have made him appear older[22]…the (image) of the dark and swarthy Middle Eastern man emerges…he probably looked a great deal more like a dark-skinned Semite than westerners are used to seeing…”[23]

      II. Hebrews: African Israelites

      Now, Neave’s reconstruction still has a somewhat “European” look, which, by his own admission, derives from his own imagination. Genetics acorroborates this data and confirms that Jesus and the Hebrew must have been, not just black, but Africoid. The African origin of the ancient Hebrews was noted often by the Classical authors[24] and is now confirmed by the genetic data, particularly that related to the so-called “Cohen Gene” or, more properly, the Cohen Modal Haplotype (CMH). Discovered in 1997 by Jewish scientists, this paternal genetic marker (it is found on the Y-chromosome) has a high frequency among the Jewish (Askenazi and Sephardic) priesthood (Cohanim) and is thought to be a signature of ancient Hebrew ancestry.[25] The haplotype (CMH)[26] is indeed part of a haplogroup (Hg J)[27] that originated in Black Arabia or Afrabia ca 30 kya (thousand years ago) and in high frequencies is believed to indicate “Semitism.”[28]

      While early reports, largely from Ashkenazi (white) Jewish writers, tended to portray this discovery as evidence that Ashkenazi Jews are truly Hebrew with a legitimate claim to the Holy Land,[29] further genetic tests and reports demonstrated just the opposite. Two data-sets in particular turned this apologetic use of the discovery on its head: (1) the further “discovery” that the “purest” surviving remnant of the Children of Israel identified by CMH tests is the tribe of Black Jews in India, the Bene Israel and the Black Jews of Cochin, who show a genetic affinity not only to Ethiopians and Yemenies, but also to the tribe of Black Jews in South Africa, the Lemba, whose relation to the ancient Hebrews has also been confirmed by the presence of high frequencies of the CMH[30] (2) and the reports confirming that, though the CMH is found in high frequencies among the priestly class of both Ashkenazi and Sephardic Jewry, this class only represents 4-10% of this Jewry.[31] Most Ashkenazi and Sephardic Jews lack this signature[32] and in fact have been shown to be genetically related, not to Semites, but to Gentiles: Kurds, Turks, East Europeans, etc.[33] Thus, genetics confirms that the ancient Hebrews were black.

      Anthropological and archaeological evidence for the Judean town of Lachish, sacked by the Assyrian King Sennacherib in the 8th century BCE, further confirms that Hebrews at that time were still an Africoid people. The approximately 1500 skulls discovered during excavations show a heterogeneous population,[34] but the primary group was likely of a “dark complexioned, narrow-headed type” similar to the ancient Egyptians.[35] That these “Kushites” of Biblical Lachish were in fact Hebrews is unmistakably confirmed by the so-called “Lachish Reliefs”, the monumental pictorial reliefs depicting the siege which graced the walls of Sennacherib’s palace at Nineveh. These reliefs depict the Assyrians leading away African-Israelite captives (Figure 3) and even flaying them alive (Figure 3).[36] These African-Israelites, with their short stature, prognathicism, and short, kinky hair resemble in these respects the Josephus’ restored description of Jesus. Thus, divergent evidences converge to confirm that description.

      On the Lachish reliefs in the British Museum, Israelite prisoners are shown being sent into exile and flayed alive by the Assyrians under Sennacherib, whose capture of Judean cities is recorded in 2 Kings 18:13.

      III. Semites: The African Forbearers

      Found in Rabbinic Hebrew and Classical Arabic literature is a tradition according to which both the Semites and the descendents of Ham were black, Japheth being the only white son of Noah. The linguistic, archaeological and genetic evidences converge to confirm this ethnographic insight. The Semitic languages constitute a branch of the larger Afroasiatic (hereafter AA) language family. While there is no solid consensus, most scholars affirm that the AA ‘proto’ language and its speakers originated in Africa,[37] likely in the Darfur-Kordofan region along the present-day border between Chad and Sudan.[38] The Proto-Semites, i.e. that group who spoke the ‘Proto-Semitic’ language, were undoubtedly a group of East Africans who branched off from the Proto-Afroasiatic stock in Africa anywhere from the ninth to the sixth millennium BCE.[39] They likely followed the Blue Nile to the Ethiopian Highlands (where most of the Semitic languages are found to this day) and crossed over into Arabia from the Bab el Manded[40]; others probably continued north down the Nile eventually entering Syria-Palestine from the Isthmus of Suez. However, whether the ‘Semitization’ of this ‘Proto-AA’ branch took place in the Sudan or the Levant,[41] we are talking about a group of migrating Africans evolving African languages. As anthropologist Dana (Reynolds) Marniche remarks: “the indigenous or ‘black’ tribes of Arabia were those who in ancient times migrated from Africa…and were the earliest purveyers and dispersers of the Semitic dialects.”[42] Indeed, the Akkadians of ancient Mesopotamia, whose Semitic language is the earliest documented, was an Africoid group, [43] as were the Arabs and Hebrews, the two best-known representatives of ‘Semitism.’[44]

      IV. Conclusion

      Robert Eisler observes:

      strange and bewildering…is this small, bent, and homely figure when first emerging from behind the veil which pious delusion has managed to weave around it for centuries…The complete disappearance of the genuine pen-portrait of Jesus is but a proof of the far-reaching Hellenization of the Jewish Messiah, a process which took place in the first centuries of the Church.[45]

      We have demonstrated that the Hellenization process which transformed the small, black-skinned Hebrew of history called Jesus into the tall, ruddy white-skinned Christ of the orthodox iconographic tradition is directly paralleled by anAryanization process which transformed a black-skinned prophet of Arabia named Muhammad into the ruddy white-skinned Muhammad of the orthodox Islamic iconographic tradition. This Aryanization of Islam involved a massive Persian/Iranian influence on Islamic tradition consequent to the misnomered Abbasid Revolution (ca. 750) which toppled the Umayyads, Islam’s first historical dynasty.[46] This process changed the demographic face of the Muslim world in general from black to mainly white. As a consequence the black Arab Muhammad, like the black Hebrew Jesus, was found offensive in and to the new order. His image too was thus ‘corrected,’ giving us the ‘white Prophet of Mecca’ so adored by most of the Muslim world today.


      [22] Eisler, Messiah Jesus, 413: This confirms an observation made by Eisler: “the indication regarding his age, ‘in appearance elderly’ (is) completely opposed to the traditional thirty years of Luke (3:23). Both statements could be harmonized by supposing that Jesus looked much older than he actually was.”

      [23] Mike Fillon, “The Real Face of Jesus: Advances in forensic science reveal the most famous face in history,” Popular Mechanics (December 2002): 70, 71.

      [24]Strabo, Geography, 16.2.34; Plutarch, De Iside et Osiride 31; Josephus, Against Apion I.22; Tacitus, Histories, V.2; See futher James Henry Breasted, Ancient Times (Boston, 1916) 199; Gerald Massey, A Book of the Beginnings, 2 vols. (Baltimore: Black Classic Press, 1995; Facsimile of 1881 edition) Volume 2; Godfrey Higgins, Anacalypsis: An Attempt to Draw Aside the Veil of the Saitic Isis or an Inquiry into the Origin of Languages, Nations and Religions (Brooklyn: A&B Publishers, 1992; Facsimile of 1836 edition) 398ff, 434ff.

      [25] Mark G. Thomas et al, “Origins of Old Testament Priests,” Nature 394 (July 1998): 138-140. See also Rabbi Yaakov Kleiman, DNA & Tradition: The Genetic Link to the Ancient Hebrews (Devora Publishing, 2004) for a review of the history of this discovery.

      [26] A haplotype (from the Greek: ἁπλοῦς, haploûs, “onefold, single, simple”) in genetics is a combination of alleles (DNA sequences) at different places (loci) on the chromosome that are transmitted together.

      [27] In the study of molecular evolution, a haplogroup (from the Greek: ἁπλοῦς, haploûs, “onefold, single, simple”) is a group of similar haplotypes that share a common ancestor with a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) mutation.

      [28] Ornella Semina et al, “Origin, Diffusion, and Differentiation of Y-Chromosome Haplogroups E and J: Inferences on the Neolithization of Europe and Later Migratory Events in the Mediterranean Area,” American Journal of Human Genetics 74 (2004): 1023-1034.

      [29] e.g. Rabbi Yaakov Kleiman, DNA & Tradition.

      [30] Tudor Parfitt, “Descended from Jewish Seed: Genetics and Jewish History in India: The Bene Israel and the Black Jews of Cochin,” Journal of Indo-Judaic Studies 6 (2003): 7-18; idem, “Place, Priestly Status and Purity: The Impact of Genetic Research on an Indian Jewish Community,” Developing World Bioethics 3 (2003): 178-185; Mark G Thomas et al, “Y Chromosomes Traveling South: The Cohen Modal Haplotype and the Origins of the Lemba-the ‘Black Jews of Southern Africa’,” American Journal of Human Genetics 66 (2000): 674-686; Tudor Parfitt and Yulia Egorova, Genetics, Mass Media and Identity: A case study of the genetic research on the Lemba and Bene Israel (London and New York: Routledge, 2006). Y Rashmee, who broke the story of the Bene Israel in The Times of India July 20, 2002 (“India’s Children of Israel Find Their Roots”) proclaimed: “More than 2,000 years after they first claimed to have set foot in India, the mystery of the world’s most obscure Jewish community – the Marathi-speaking Bene Israel – may finally have been solved with genetic carbon-dating revealing they carry the unusual Moses gene that would make them, literally, the original children of Israel…[The research says] this is the first concrete proof that ‘exils from Palestine made it as far as India”. On the Black Jews of India see further Jewish Encyclopedia s.v. Cochin; Joseph J. Williams, Hebrewisms of West Africa: From Nile to Niger with the Jews (Biblo and Tannen [reprint]) 150; Higgins, Anacalypsis, I:398-400.

      [31] Harry Ostrer, “A genetic profile of contemporary Jewish populations,” Nature Reviews-Genetics 2 (2001): 891.

      [32] Only about 15% of lay Ashkenaz and 12% of lay Sephardim possess this marker. The presence of this marker in non-priestly segments of the populations may be accounted for by gene flow from the Cohanim or priests. Thomas et al, “Origins of Old Testament Priests,” 139; Semina et al, “Origin, Diffusion, and Differentiation,” 1029; Ellen Levy-Coffman, “A Mosaic of People: The Jewish Story and a Reassessment of the DNA Evidence,” Journal of Genetic Genealogy 1 (2005): 12-33 [15-16]; Doron M. Behar et al, “Multiple Origins of Ashkenazi Levites: Y Chromosome Evidence for Both Near Eastern and European Ancestries,” American Journal of Human Genetics 73 (2003): 768-779 [769].

      [33] Almut Nebel et al, “The Y Chromosome Pool of Jews as Part of the Genetic Landscape of the Middle East,”American Journal of Human Genetics 69 (2001): 1095-1112: “In comparison with data available from other relevant populations in the region, Jews were found to be more closely related to groups in the north of the Fertile Cresent (Kurds, Turks, and Armenians) than to their Arab neighbors (1095)”; Gil Atzmon et al, “Abraham’s Children in the Genome Era: Major Jewish Diaspora Populations Comprise Distinct Genetic Clusters with Shared Middle Eastern Ancestry,” American Journal of Human Genetics 86 (2010): 850-859: “genetic proximity of these European/Syrian Jewish populations, including Ashkenazi Jews, to each other and to French, North Italian and Sardinian populations favors the idea of non-Semitic Mediterranean ancestry in the formation of the European/Syrian Jewish groups (857)”; Almut Nebel et al, “Y chromosome evidence for a founder effect in Ashkenazi Jews,” European Journal of Human Genetics 13 (2005): 388-391; The CMH clad belongs to the J haplogroup. J has two major derivative subclads associated with it: J1 and J2. The CMH belongs to JI, which originated in Black Arabia and signals African Semitic ancestry. J2, on the other hand, which is found among Ashkenazis at a frequency twice that of JI, has a characteristically non-Semitic European distribution and is believed to have originated from a mutation that occurred in the Aegean area! F. Di Giacomo et al, “Y chromosomal haplogroup J as signature of the post-neolithic colonization of Europe,” Human Genetics 115 (2004): 357-371; Levy-Coffman, “Mosaic of People,” 16, 24-26: “Because Jewish populations possess approximately twice as much J2 as they do J1, their ancestry more closely matches that of Turkish and Transcaucasian populations [25].”

      [34] S.O.Y. Keita, “An Analysis of Crania From Tell-Duweir Using Multiple Discriminant Functions,” American Journal of Physical Anthropology 75 (1988): 375-390.

      [35] Sir Arthur Keith, “The Men of Lachish,” Palestine Exploration Quarterly (1940): 7-12 [11]; Keita, “An Analysis.”

      [36] See especially David Ussishkin, The Conquest of Lachish by Sennacherib, with drawings of the Lachish reliefs by Judith Dekel; photographs of the Lachish reliefs by Avraham Hay; and reconstructions of the Assyrian siege by Gert le Grange (Tel-Aviv : Tel Aviv University, Institute of Archaeology, 1982).

      [37]John Huehnergard, “Afro-Asiatic,” in Roger D. Woodard (ed.), The Ancient Languages of Syria-Palestine and Arabia (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2008) 225; Christopher Ehret, S.O.Y Keita and Paul Newman, “The Origins of Afroasiatic,” Science 306 (2004) 1680-1681; Carleton T. Hodge, “Afroasiatic: The Horizon and Beyond,” in Scott Noegel and Alan S. Kaye (edd.), Afroasiatic Linguistics, Semitics, and Egyptology: Selected Writings of Carleton T. Hodge (Bethesda, Maryland: CDL Press, 2004) 64; ML Bender Upside Down Afrasian, Afrikanistische Arbeitspapiere 50 (1997): 19-34; Christopher Ehret, Reconstructing Proto-Afroasiatic (Proto-Afrasian): vowels, tone, consonants, and vocabulary (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1995) 487; Joseph H. Greenberg, “African linguistic classification,” in Joseph Ki-Zerbo (ed.), General History of Africa, Volume 1: Methodology and African Prehistory (Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press. 1981) 292–308. On the Africa vs. Asia AA Origin dispute see Daniel P. Mc Call, “The Afroasiatic Language Phylum: African in Origin, or Asian?” Current Anthropology 39 (1998): 139-143.

      [38] Nicholas Faraclas, “They Came Before the Egyptians: Linguistic Evidence for the African Roots of Semitic Languages,” in Silvia Federici (ed.), Enduring Western Civilization: The Construction of the Concept of Western Civilization and Its “Others” (Westport, Connecticut and London: Praeger, 1995) 175-96.

      [39] Gregorio del Olmo Lete, in his Questions of Semitic Linguistics. Root and Lexeme: The History of Research (Bethesda, Maryland: CDL Press, 2008) 115 noted: “[Proto-Semites] formed part of a mass of peoples who, moving out from the heart of Africa, spread north and reached the Mediterranean coast and beyond…The Semitic family [was] the spearhead of one of the expansive movements of peoples toward Asia (from Africa)…” See further Edward Lipiński, Semitic Languages: Outline of a Comparative Grammar (Leuven: Uitgeverij Peeters and Departement Oosterse Studies, 1997) 42-43; A. Murtonen, Early Semitic (Leiden: E.J. Brill, 1967), 74; Faraclas, “They Came Before the Egyptians”; Igor M. Diankonoff, “The Earliest Semitic Society,” Journal of Semitic Studies 43 (1998): 209-219; idem, “Earliest Semites in Asia,” Altorientalische Forschungen 8 (1981)23-70; George Aaron Barton, Semitic and Hamitic Origins: Social and Religious (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1934) 8.

      [40] Faraclas, “They Came Before the Egyptians” 190.

      [41] Peter Bellwood, First Farmers: The Origin of Agricultural Societies (Oxford: Blackwell Publishing, 2005) 209; Diankonoff, “Earliest Semitic Society.”

      [42] Dana Reynolds, “The African Heritage & Ethnohistory of the Moors,” in Ivan van Sertima, Golden Age of the Moor (New Brunswick: Transaction Publishers, 1992) 105.

      [43] William L. Langer, An Encyclopedia of World History (Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1972); T.K. Penniman, “A Note on the Inhabitants of Kish Before the Great Flood,” Excavations at Kish , 4:65-72. The British Orientalist, Sir Henry Rawlinson, who deciphered the cuneiform script in the 19th century, was convinced that the Akkadians and the preceding Sumerians were Kushites. See e.g. Outline of the History of Assyria (1852) andNotes on the Early History of Babylonia (1854).

      [44] On the African origin of the Arabs see Wesley Muhammad, Black Arabia and the African Origin of Islam(Atlanta: A-Team Publishing, 2009); Tariq Berry, The Unknown Arabs: Clear, Definitive Proof of the Dark Complexion of the Original Arabs and the Arab Origin of the so-called African Americans (Morocco, 2002); Reynolds, “The African Heritage”; Runoko Rashidi, “Africans in Early Asian Civilizations: A Historical Overview,” in Runoko Rashidi and Ivan Van Sertima (ed.), African Presence in Early Asia (New Brunswick: Transaction Publishers, 1999) 21-57; Emmanuel Anati, Rock-Art in Central Arabia. Vol 1: The “Oval-Headed” People of Arabia(Louvain and Leuven, 1968); Bertram Thomas, “Racial Origin of the Arabs,” in idem, The Arabs: The life-story of a People who have left their deep impress on the world (London: Thorton Butterworth Ltd., 1937) 353-359. On the African origin of the Hebrews see Strabo, Geography, 16.2.34; Plutarch, De Iside et Osiride 31; Josephus, Against Apion I.22; Tacitus, Histories, V.2; James Henry Breasted, Ancient Times (Boston, 1916) 199; Gerald Massey, A Book of the Beginnings, 2 vols. (Baltimore: Black Classic Press, 1995; Facsimile of 1881 edition) Volume 2; Godfrey Higgins, Anacalypsis: An Attempt to Draw Aside the Veil of the Saitic Isis or an Inquiry into the Origin of Languages, Nations and Religions (Brooklyn: A&B Publishers, 1992; Facsimile of 1836 edition) 398ff, 434ff.

      [45] Eisler, Messiah Jesus, 431, 433.

      [46] See below.

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