Arabs & Arab Culture in Islamic History, Scripture & Prophecy

 

Islam was revealed in Arabic in the Arabian Peninsula, but what does it actually say about Arabs?  What is their place in Islam and Islamic history?  And does this apply to today’s modern musta’rab (Arabized people) or only to the original Arabs?

 

Arabs & Islamic Culture in Islamic History

Enmity to Islam

  • The first opponents of Islam were Arabs. They tortured and killed Muslims, even spearing a woman- Sumayya- in her vagina.
  • The people Muslims had to flee from, several times, were Arabs.
  • The first army Muslims fought was an army of Arabs.
  • The first munafiqeen (hypocrites) were Arabs. They pretended to be Muslims ready to fight with Prophet Muhammad, sAá&s, then betrayed him.
  • The first murtadeen- renegade apostates- and false prophets were Arabs.

 

Enmity to Prophet Muhammad, sAá&s, and His Family

  • Arabs tried to assassinate Prophet Muhammad, sAá&s, a grave sin of the Children of Israel condemned in the Qur-an many times.
  • The first people to physically attack the body of Prophet Muhammad, sAá&s, were Arabs.
  • The first people to belie and mock the Prophet Muhammad, sAá&s, were Arabs.
  • The murderer of Ali, son-in-law of the Prophet, 4th Khalifa (Caliph), was an Arab.
  • The murderers of the grandsons of the Prophet Muhammad, Hasan & Husayn, were Arabs.

 

Arabs & Arab Culture in the Qur-an & Prophetic Narrations (Hadith)

Pride

“So when you have accomplished your (Hajj) rituals, remember Allah as you remember your forefathers or with a greater rememberance…” (Qur-an 2.200)

This refutes a custom the Arabs had introduced into the Hajj (a pilgrimage which precedes Allah’s revelation to Muhammad).  In it, they would spend hours praising their forefathers in poetry and song, an exercise in tribal pride.

 

Bedouin Arab Culture is Disbelief and Hypocrisy

“The wandering desert Arabs are the severest in disbelief and hypocrisy, and most likely to be ignorant of the limits which Allah hath revealed unto His messenger. And Allah is Knower, Wise.

Some of the desert Arabs look upon their payments as a fine, and watch for disasters for you: on them be the disaster of evil: for Allah is He That heareth and knoweth (all things).

But some of the desert Arabs believe in Allah and the Last Day, and look on their payments as pious gifts bringing them nearer to Allah and obtaining the prayers of the Messenger. Aye, indeed they bring them nearer (to Him): soon will Allah admit them to His Mercy: for Allah is Oft-forgiving, Most Merciful.” (Qur-an 9.97-99)

“He Who belongs to the Bedouin is most likely harsh and hard of heart”

[Reported by Abu Y’ala on the authority of Al-Bara’. Also by Ahmad on the authority of Abu Hurairah].

 

All the following people are cursed by Muhammad (Peace be upon him) until the Day of Judgment, the man who lends money at interest (Riba), the man who accepts to pay it back at interest, the man who writes down this usurious agreement, the two witnesses of it at those times, the tattooer and the tattooed for the of beauty, the procrastinator of Zakah, whoever turns back to the Bedouin life after his immigration.

[Reported by lbn Khuzaimah in his Sahih (No.2250), Al-Hakim (vol. 1, pp.387, 388), Al-Baihaqi (vol.9, p.19), and `Abd Al-Raziq in his Musanaf with difference in words (No.15350). It is also reported by Ahmad (No.3881), Al-Nasa’i (vol.8, p.147), and Ibn Hibban (No .3252) on the authority of Al-Harith Al-A’war]

The apostate to Bedouin life, as Ibn Al-‘Athir said, is the one who returns to desert and live with the Bedoums after his immigration. The man who returned to Bedouin life after immigration without excuse was considered an apostate.

Abu Hurairah reported in a hadith that:

The great sins are disbelief in Allah, killing a fellow man without a just cause, devouring usury, eating up the property of orphans unjustly, turning one’s back to the disbelievers in a battlefield at the time of fighting, accusing chaste women, and to go back to the Bedouin after one’s immigration.”

[Al-Haitharni said: It is reported by Al-Bazar, vol.1, p.103]

 

Sahl Ibn Abi Hathamah narrated after his father that he heard the Prophet (Peace be upon him) saying:

Avoid the great seven sins. When the Prophet saw that the people kept silent, he went on: “Won’t you ask me about them? They are: to associate partners in worship with Allah and to turn and live in the desert with Bedouin after the immigration etc.”

[Al-Haithami said: It is reported by Al-Tabarani in Al-Kabir, vol.1, p.103]

 

Selling Daughters and Female Wards

“And give to the women (whom you marry) their dowry with a good heart…” (Qur-an 4.4)

This bans the practice of giving dowries to the fathers of the bride, effectively ending the custom of selling daughters and buying wives against their will.

 

Passing Women between Brothers

O ye who believe! It is not lawful for you forcibly to inherit the women (of your deceased kinsmen), nor (that) ye should put constraint upon them that ye may take away a part of that which ye have given them, unless they be guilty of flagrant lewdness. But consort with them in kindness, for if ye hate them it may happen that ye hate a thing wherein Allah hath placed much good. (Qur-an 4.19)

The Arab custom of widows being inherited by their brother-in-law or other in-laws is banned.

 

Passing Wives to Sons

And marry not women whom your fathers married,- except what is past: It was shameful and odious,- an abominable custom indeed. (Qur-an 4.22)

Another Arab custom is banned.

 

 

Sexual Comparison of Wives and Mothers

If any men among you divorce their wives by Zihar, they cannot be their mothers: None can be their mothers except those who gave them birth. And in fact they use words (both) iniquitous and false: but truly Allah is one that blots out (sins), and forgives (again and again).

But those who divorce their wives by Zihar, then wish to go back on the words they uttered,- (It is ordained that such a one) should free a slave before they touch each other: Thus are ye admonished to perform: and Allah is well-acquainted with (all) that ye do.

And he who findeth not (the wherewithal), let him fast for two successive months before they touch one another; and for him who is unable to do so (the penance is) the feeding of sixty needy ones. This, that ye may put trust in Allah and His messenger. Such are the limits (imposed by Allah); and for disbelievers is a painful doom. (Qur-an 58.2-4)

Zihar, the Arab custom of divorcing a wife by saying approaching her is like approaching the back of his mother, is condemned, punished and banned.

 

Refutation of Blood Feuds

“O you who believe!  The Law of Equality in Punishment is prescribed for you in the case of murder:  the free for the free, the slave for the slave, and the female for the female.

But if the killer is forgiven by the brother (or relatives, etc.) of the killed for blood money, then adhering to it with fairness and payment of the blood-money to the heir should be done in fairness.  This is an alleviation and a mercy from your Lord.  So after this, whoever transgresses the limits (i.e. kills the killer after taking the blood-money), he shall have a painful torment.

And there is a saving of life for you in the Law of Equality in Punishment, O people of understanding, that you may become righteous.” (Qur-an 2.178-9)

Previously, tribes would retaliate for a murder by murdering any other member of the offending tribe, which would in turn retaliate, starting a vicious cycle of vengeance.  At the time of Allah’s revelation to Muhammad, a blood feud had been running for centuries between two tribes that began with a member of one drinking from the other’s well.

 

Hating Females and Murdering Female Infants

“And when the female infant is asked:  for what sin was she killed?… …every soul will know what it has brought (of good and evil).” (Qur-an 81.8-9, 14)

When news is brought to one of them, of (the birth of) a female (child), his face darkens, and he is filled with inward grief!

He hides himself from the people because of the evil of that which is announced to him. Shall he keep it with disgrace or bury it (alive) in the dust? Now surely evil is what they judge. (Qur-an 16.58-9)

The Arabs used to dig a hole for the mother to deliver over.  If it was a girl, they would simply bury her in the hole.  This is the amount of shame and inferiority that was attached to females.  There is a narration in which a man once informed Prophet Muhammad that he buried his daughter alive after she was several years old.  It is also reported that a man once told the Prophet that he had buried eight of his daughters alive before Islam.

Today, Arab men publicly greet each other by kissing and hugging each other multiple times, and also hold hands when they walk.  Any display of affection towards a woman is generally forbidden.

 

Other Miscellaneous Refutations of Arab Culture and Customs

“And as such do the idols beautify for the idolaters the killing of their children, in order to lead them into their own destruction and confuse them in their religion.  And if Allah Had Willed, they would not have done so.  So leave them alone in their fabrications.

And they say:  “What is in the bellies of these cattle is for our males alone, and forbidden to our females, but if it is born dead, the all have shares therein.”  He Will Punish them for their attribution (of such evils to Himself).  Verily, He Is Wise, Knowing. (Qur-an 6.137, 139)

 

Arabs in Islamic Prophecy

The Khawarij- extremist rebels- were and will be Arabs

Jabir b. Abdullah reported that a person came to the Messenger of Allah (SallAllah-u-Alaihi-wa-Sallam) at Ja’rana on his way back from Hunain, and there was in the clothes of Bilal some silver. The Messenger of Allah (SallAllah-u-Alaihi-wa-Sallam) took a handful out of that and bestowed it upon the people. He (the person who had met the Prophet at Ja’rana) said to him: Muhammad, do justice. He (the Holy Prophet) said: Woe be upon thee, who would do justice if I do not do justice, and you would be very unfortunate and a loser if I do not do justice. Upon this Umar b. Khattab (Allah be pleased with him) said: Permit me to kill this hypocrite. Upon this he (the Holy Prophet) said: May there be protection of Allah! People would say that I kill my companions. This man and his companions would recite the Qur’an but it would not go beyond their throat, and they swerve from it just as the arrow goes through the prey.
[Sahih Muslim: Book 005, Number 2316]

In one narration the words are:

A person among the people then sought permission (from the Holy Prophet) for his murder. According to some, it was Khalid b. Walid who sought the permission. Upon this the Messenger of Allah (SallAllah-u-Alaihi-wa-Sallam), said: From this very person’s posterity there would arise people who would recite the Qur’an, but it would not go beyond their throat; they would kill the followers of Islam and would spare the idol-worshippers. They would glance through the teachings of Islam so hurriedly just as the arrow passes through the pray. If I were to ever find them I would kill them like ‘Ad.
[Sahih Muslim: Book 005, Number 2318]

 

The Dajjaal* Will Resemble an Arab

*”Deceiving Anointed One”, False Messiah, Anti-Christ

No, By Allah, the Prophet did not tell that Jesus was of red complexion but said, “While I was asleep circumambulating the Ka’ba (in my dream), suddenly I saw a man of brown complexion and lank hair walking between two men, and water was dropping from his head. I asked, ‘Who is this?’ The people said, ‘He is the son of Mary.’ Then I looked behind and I saw a red-complexioned, fat, curly-haired man, blind in the right eye which looked like a bulging out grape. I asked, ‘Who is this?’ They replied, ‘He is Ad-Dajjal.’ (Sahih Bukhari, Volume 4, Book 55, Number 650)

In another narration:

The Prophet added, “The man he resembled most is Ibn Qatan, a man from the tribe of Khuza’a.” (Bukhari Volume 9, Book 88, Number 242)

 

Great Trials and Tribulations Will Come From Arabia

The Messenger of Allaah, sallallaahu alayhi wa sallam, said,

“O Allaah bestow your blessings on our Shaam [The Levant]. O Allaah bestow your blessings on our Yemen.”

The people said, “O Messenger of Allaah, and our Najd [Central Arabia or Iraq].”

I think the third time the Prophet, sallallaahu alayhi wa sallam, said, “There (in Najd) will occur earthquakes, trials and tribulations, and from their appears the Horn of Satan.”

(Reported in al-Bukhaaree [Book of Trials, Chpt. ‘The afflictions will come from the East’ 9/166 no. 214 Eng. Trans])

Narrated by Abu Huraira

Allah’s Apostle said, “The Hour will not be established till the buttocks of the women of the tribe of Daus move while going round Dhi-al-Khalasa.” Dhi-al-Khalasa was the idol of the Daus tribe which they used to worship in the Pre Islamic Period of ignorance. (Bukhari Volume 9, Book 88, Number 232)

Narrated by Abu Huraira

Allah’s Apostle said, “The Hour will not be established till a man from Qahtan appears, driving the people with his stick.” (Bukhari Volume 9, Book 88, Number 233)

Qahtan is a large tribe in the Arabian Peninsula.

Conclusion

arab intellect

“The Arab intellect turns easily to lies, delusions and burying facts, as an excercise to save its face (dignity). Thus, it never accepts defeat, neither it is apologetic.”

Salman al-Ouda is a respected Muslim scholar from the Arabian Peninsula. He is a member of the International Union for Muslim Scholars and on its Board of Trustees, and a director of the Arabic edition of the website Islam Today.  He and appears on a number of TV shows and authors newspaper articles.

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You know what?

You know what?

I bet “terrorism” isn’t even in the top 50 causes of American deaths. But we work to pay people to take our rights and privacy to “keep us safe”. We are safe- from terrorism anyway. So what’s really happening is we’re paying people to take our privacy and rights.

Keep me safe from cholesterol and pollution. Save me from global warming and whatever it is you’re poisoning my food with. Give me the freedom to eat healthy and live a life that doesn’t need debt to be decent. Leave Syria and Pakistan alone and intervene in the civil wars going on in American inner cities. Stop charging me to detain people who haven’t been charged or convicted and lock up bankers AT THEIR EXPENSE. Stop rebuilding Iraq and pay the homeless to build their own homes and communities. Stop charging me to get spied on and research clean energy. The most dangerous men in history are “gentle”-men in suits, so leave the brown guys with beards and long last names alone and start profiling at country clubs and white tie dinners.

You know what real democracy would be? Everyone only pays for activities they support. So send me a list and I’ll check the boxes for what I wanna pay for and how much. You can have your taxes AFTER I get my check, thank you…

this isn’t hate-  it’s love

this isn’t negative-  it’s positive

this isn’t criticism-  it’s encouragement: we got to do better…

this isn’t anti-american-  it’s americism:  strive ’til we stride!

metal detector 2

going Secular?

Is Islam the source of our problems, or their long-lost solution?

To go secular or not to go secular?  North Africans fight for the soul of their revolutions.  “Western” Muslims are struggling to forge an identity.  Turkey continues its decades old constitutional struggles.  In all of these and more, the question of secularism vs. Islam-“ism” (defined here) is central.  To be or not to be, Shakespeare wrote…

Secularism, if only for this discussion, is the ideological, legal, political and social abandonment of religion as a basis for legal, political and social action.  Its totality varies as does the rapidity of its adoption.  A secularist defines it as a “… new value system [that] also regarded religion and faith as one’s personal matter… It also advocated that matters of this world be handled rationally in accordance with the spirit of the times.”

Its most famous test case was and is western Europe, which it awakened from a millenium of human darkness.  Many other countries have followed suit in an effort to “modernize” and catch up to the “West”.

Many Muslims, whether they are in Muslim majority countries, the diasporas thereof, or reverts, are routing their degrees towards this effort, and not without reason.  Muslim-majority nations have been dominated for centuries, and still are, and many suffer from a variety of sub-standard conditions.

Secularism is the answer many Muslims turn to because of these and similar questions:

Why do we, who invented hospitals in Baghdad, suffer from high infant mortality and diseases that have been eradicated in the “West”?

Why are we so disorganized after implementing bureaucracy to unprecedented detail and precision in the Uthmani Khilafah (Ottoman Caliphate)?

Why, with all the ayat and ahadith stressing cleanliness and hygiene, are our lands so filthy?

How can we, when we innovated weapon-making for centuries, be so easily dominated?

Why, when we are united by a book, and the first revelation was the command to read, do many of us suffer from illiteracy?

 How can Muslim-majority countries trail the world in math in our lands when one of us founded algebra?

Why are we unable to implement solutions to our social problems when one of us founded the social sciences?

Why do we leave so many of our women to suffer after all the rights and protections accorded to them in the Qur’an and ahadith?

Why, when moderation, collaboration, negotiation and communication are integral to our deen and its history, are we unable to unite and counter the assaults against us?

Brother, Sister, Shaykh, ‘Alima, do you know the answer?

For many, secularism seems to be it.  The problems we face were largely tackled ages ago by secularism in other countries, so by logic, the same will work for us.  An even more encouraging sign is that countries we used to dominate in turn came to dominate us after secularizing.  There’s no need for an opinion here, there’s not a historian who’ll dispute secularism as a factor, as a cause for the shift in global paradigms.

Why shouldn’t it work for Muslims if it worked for non-Muslims?  The pre-secular non-Islamic world was rife with superstition.  Unfounded, irrational and counter-scientific beliefs were the foundation for political, legal and social interaction.  Science, what little of it there was, and medicine were also subjugated and contradicted by these foul-conceived notions.  Royal/political scandals continued to emerge and chip away at the concept of the divine basis and status of rule.  Scientific recoveries of ancient knowledge in western Europe, threw long-held beliefs and practices into mockery, from which they could never emerge.  This and other factors turned people away from religion, and, predictably, especially considering the circumstances, it worked.

Why shouldn’t it have?  Science is better in direction and potential than fairytale.  A person, or people, will walk more successfully towards the future by seeing with their own eyes, rather than blindly, with misconceived notions of what surrounds them.

Islam- my Sisters, Brothers and Elders- is not like the religions other nations have left behind.  Islam is not based on superstition.  Science is consistent with it and we use scientific principles to learn and apply it.  Anyone with a Qur-an can read over the scientific signs that it points to and explains, and afterwards go personally and objectively observe them.  If they are not filled with faith, they’ll at least be impressed or amazed.  The social and legal code of Islam, not to mention it’s hygienic and dietary stipulations, upgrade the way of life of yesterday and today.  Through its code, people are enabled to update their cultures and avoid their pitfalls, while keeping their identity and pride intact.  The diplomacy, international and inter-religious code of conduct has the potential to soothe the world’s growing rage.  In Islam is provided a framework of inquiry, deduction, and conclusion that enables- and encourages- Muslims to benefit from the world, while safeguarding themselves from its evils.

Reason, logic and science and human advancement are integral to Islam.  At the same time, it is not bound by them.  It surpasses them by incorporating them into a holistic worldview and lifestyle.  Science, logic and reason are made use of in the Qur-an to appeal to people’s higher instincts, and the message is just as real and relevant now, over a thousand years after its revelation.  Secularism freed many parts of the world to their senses, but it also bound them to their senses.  Without the anchor of guidance, we can reason ourselves in and out of anything.  If you look around, you will see how secular societies and governments are using rational arguments, logic and science to lead ourselves into social, economic and environmental destruction.

What do Muslims really stand to benefit from that?

If you think and read deeply, you will recognize that it isn’t Islam that Muslims are seeking to abandon.  Many Muslims wake up every day to a stagnant, backward, shackled reality.  Culture, superstition, and tyranny have taken root and grown dominant in the Muslim-world.  People have ignorantly or cunningly instituted practices and agendas that contradict or even negate Islam.  For all the lofty ideals implied by our title- Muslim- we are living with too few of Islam’s benefits.

Secularism is the abandonment of ignorance, unquestioned tradition, and thoughtless action.  It is the effort to replace them with information, rational principles, and science-verified processes.  Islam goes even further than that by adding knowledge and wisdom, exceptional morals and values, and a complete, coherent lifestyle.

The “West” revived their societies through Renaissance, or ‘rebirth’ of old knowledge and sciences (much of which was transmitted to them by Muslims, by the way).  Muslim populations did that a long time ago, but have admittedly come full circle.  So we don’t need to try something different that we already see not working in societies around us.  We need to repeat the process of self-purification and dedication to revelation that is a proven success.

If you’re still not ready to consider the Islam side of the coin, take a look at what secularism has already “achieved”:

Consider the monstrosities of depleted uranium and other chemical warfare, weapons of mass destruction, pollution, and global warming, all examples of the imbalance of pure science that lacks a stable moral basis.

Look at and ponder the suicide, rape, murder and drug addiction figures of the “First World”

As the seat of the Khilafah (“Caliphate”/“Ottoman Empire), Turkey once brought Europe to its knees.  Now secular Turkey is on its knees begging to join the European Union.

The huge secular Arab regimes surrounding Israel all failed in their attempts to protect the rights and lands of their Christian and Muslim brethren.

What prosperity and upliftment have the secular governments of North Africa brought to their people? They are actually in worse condition than they were during the Khilafah. In the Khilafah, Syria had gold in its treasury.  Now it has paper currency.

Muslims have the same standard of living as the people they live around, if not other places in the world.

Now ask yourself, are you comparing Muslim-majority Senegal to secular France, for example, or are you comparing West Africa to Western Europe?  If you look at the world by region, you will find that Muslim-majority nations are basically at the same standard as the countries that they are around.  The issues are not Islamic, they are regional.  To take the West Africa example again, Muslim-majority Senegal is not much better or worse off than its non-Muslim neighbors.  The same goes wherever you look.  No Asian or African country can be compared to the “West” regardless of the religion of its inhabitants, with very few exceptions.  Different parts of the world are at different standards of living.  Islam is not to blame.  It isn’t even a factor.

Well there is one exception.  Muslims living in “Western” countries often enjoy higher rates of income and education.  It would seem then, that Islam is an advantage.

The calculus behind the call for secularism goes like this:

Given:  We are Muslims.

Given:  We are facing problems.

Conclusion:  We are facing problems because we are Muslims.

This line of thinking- and I admit to have oversimplified it- is an affront to the same logic that we claim to want to implement.  We are not only Muslims.  We are a lot of things.  We are also Africans, Americans, Australians, and Eurasians.  How come we don’t look to that as a cause?  How come we don’t look at our traditions and culture and see if the cause is there?  Why are our own personal and collective shortcomings held beyond suspicion?

Mustafa Kemal joined European colonialists in banning Muslims from using Arabic-based scripts.

Speaking of suspicion, don’t you find it suspicious that with all the identities we carry, we only isolate Islam as the cause of our problems?  On the one hand, many of use admit to ourselves that we are Muslim in name only, but on the other hand, we blame the same Islam we admit is absent from our lives as the cause of the problems in our lives?  Where does this come from?

Final thought:  secularists within Muslim-majority countries often have the same agenda as kaafir colonialists.  Russia banned the Arabic-based script in Central Asia (Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan, Turkmenistan, etc.) and forced them to use their Cyrillic script.  England banned the Arabic-based script used in East Africa (Swahili), Malaysia, and Indonesia (along with the Dutch) at least.  What did Mustafa Kemal “Ataturk” do?  Ban the Arabic-based Ottoman script in favor of the Roman alphabet.  Coincidence?  England, via Lawrence of Arabia, stoked feelings of Arab ethnocentrism and Arab nationalism to weaken the Ottoman Empire which united much of the Muslim world.  Later, what was the sentiment common to the countries that were carved out of the Ottoman Empire?  Secular nationalism.  Coincidence?  And to this day, liberal secular regimes get anything they want, from weapons to NATO invasions to media cover, from the same countries that used to colonize them.  Coincidence?

Let’s re-evaluate, re-educate and re-dedicate ourselves to living by guidance.  Let us define ourselves, and look at ourselves through our own eyes (See this year’s State of the Ummah address here.)  Despite the challenges we face, one indisputable, indubitable truth remains: we have established Allaah’s word as uppermost in every sphere of life. We ARE the best nation.

COMMENTS WELCOME

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Hidden Spirituality

Discussions about hijab are almost always political or sexual.  But what about its spirituality?  After all, it is part of a religion…

This Q&A is a follow-up to the post Behind the Veil lives a thriving Muslim Sexuality.  The author wishes to remain anonymous, but can be reached upon request.

Question

Could you please elaborate on the spiritual aspects of hijab for a relatively new Muslimah?

I admit that I myself am woefully ignorant of many of the spiritual aspects of hijab that you mentioned.  

From my experience, even in conversations with other Muslims, the issue of hijab is almost always raised within a context of sexuality, not spirituality. My primary reason for wearing it, as many women in the article said, is that “when I wear my headscarf or chador, people relate to me as an individual, not an object; I feel respected.

Answer

There is a lot to talk about regarding the spiritual side of modesty, so I’ll try to keep it brief.

1. Modesty is an expression for one’s love for Allah and seeking his forgiveness.

In the Quran, 3.31, Allah instructs the Prophet to tell us “If you love Allah then follow me and Allah will love you and forgive your sins.”

One of the greatest traits of the Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him, was his remarkable level of modesty. By following his example, we establish our love for Allah and open ourselves to receiving His love and forgiveness.

2. We draw nearer to Allah through ascending through levels of modesty.

When we talk about modesty, we must understand that there are levels.

A.  There is the obligatory level, which is the most beloved to Allah, because all of the other levels build upon that level.

Allah says in a hadith Qudsi: “The most beloved thing to Me that a person can do to draw nearer to me is doing that which I have made obligatory upon him.”  (Hadeeth Qudsi 25)

The obligatory level consists of being modest in public by concealing one’s ‘Awra (the legally-defined private areas of the body) and refraining from all forms of sexual deviance.

B.  One higher level of modesty consists of being modest in private, in your own household with your family and even with yourself.

The Prophet’s modesty at home was at such a high level that, although they had healthy marital relationships, his wives didn’t look at his private parts. nor did he expose himself in such a way. This is narrated in a hadith of ‘Aisha: “I never looked at the Prophet’s private parts and never saw them.”

C.  Then, the levels of modesty continue to strengthen until we become modest with the Jinn and the angels.

This modesty can strengthen so much that, as one scholar said, “the unseen will become like the seen,” such that you become so aware of the angels’ presence that it will be as if you see them plainly.

A person can become so conscious of his modesty with the angels that the angels will become shy of him! This is a level the companion Uthman b. ‘Affan reached.

The Prophet encourages us to observe this level of modesty in a hadith: The Prophet said, “Didn’t I forbid you from nakedness? Didn’t I forbid you from nakedness? There are beings [angels] that never leave you in the day or night, except when you are engaged with your spouse or when you are using the bathroom, so lo, be modest with them, and lo, be honorable with them.”

We are even advised to be modest with the jinn as well, even though we generally don’t see them. This is achieved by creating a spiritual veil between us and them when taking our clothes off by saying, “bismillah aladhi la ilaha illa hu”, as indicated in hadith. The translation of it is: “In the Name of whom there is no god other than Him.”

D. And finally, and most importantly, the highest level is being in a constant station of modesty with Allah at all times, even when we are asleep, and even in our dreams.

This level is affirmed in a hadith, when, one day, the Prophet told the people to cover their ‘Awrah (legally-defined private areas of the body) from everyone except their spouses, they asked, “what if we are alone, o Messenger?” He replied, ‘Allah is more deserving of your modesty than the people.”

3. The more modesty and shyness we have with Allah, the more shyness Allah will have with us.

He will refrain from punishing us because of this. We know this because the Prophet mentioned a man who was shy with Allah, and hence Allah was shy with him. And Allah’s shyness is manifested by saving us from his punishment and answering dua.

4. Hence, modesty and faith are linked.

As believers, we cannot increase our faith without increasing our modesty. If one increases the other increases.
The Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him, said, “Modesty and faith are linked, if one of them increases the other will increase.”

Similarly, if our modesty decreases our faith will decrease. Hence the Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him, said: “Modesty and faith are linked, once one of them is taken away, the other will follow.”

Modesty is such an important part of Islam that Islam is almost defined by it. Hence, the hadith, “Every religion has a outstanding attribute, and the attribute of Islam is modesty.”

5. In light of this, it must be said that the hijab is only one part of the multi-dimentional state of modesty.

Moreover, hijab is only a partial, yet fundamental, part of the spiritual station of modesty. In a broad sense, modesty encompasses our speech, our eyes, our movements, even our thoughts, as well as our dress. Yet, we must note here that without practicing physical modesty, spiritual modesty can not increase. Hence, outward modesty is vital to one’s spiritual growth.

This is why the Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him, said, “Whoever doesn’t have modesty with Allah in public will not have modesty with Allah in private.”

And regarding the topic of the hijab, it is said that the Prophet said, “A woman that removes her veil outside of her home has removed the veil [of modesty] between her and Allah.”

6. Conclusion

So the hijab, in all of its components, is a vital part of a woman’s relationship with Allah. It serves as a doorway that leads to many spiritual openings and secrets. In fact, it plays such a profound role in a woman’s relationship with Allah that Allah explicitly mentions that the Virgin Mary’s adorning of the hijab was a prelude for the immediate arrival of Prophet Jesus, peace and blessings be upon them both:

Mary, Mother of Jesus (Maryam, Umm ‘Eesaa)

Relate in the Book (the story of) Mary, when she withdrew from her family to a place in the East.  

She took up a Hijab (to screen herself) from them; then We sent her our angel, and he appeared before her as a man in all respects.

She said: “I seek refuge from thee to (God) Most Gracious: (come not near) if thou dost fear God.”

He said: “Nay, I am only a messenger from thy Lord, (to announce) to thee the gift of a holy son.

(alQur-aan 19.16-19)

These are just some of the spiritual aspects of modesty. As with all spiritual stations, they can only truly be realized by experience. Words can’t do justice to these realities.

Wow! thank you so much for this much needed clarification!  This is one of the best explanations of hijab that I have received since taking my shahadah. I now seek to increase my understanding of spiritual modesty.  Allah knows best!

(Hadeeth references were not provided, but are familiar to the blogger.)

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Behind the Veil is a thriving Sexuality.

Bikini vs. Burqa: Which one’s right?

Hijab Success Stories

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Sociology of Gender: the Hijab

Behind the Veil lives a thriving Muslim Sexuality

Leading feminist Naomi Wolf’s personal experiences challenge Western perceptions of veiling, sexuality and freedom.

Ideological battles are often waged with women’s bodies as their emblems, and Western Islamophobia is no exception.  But are we in the West radically misinterpreting Muslim sexual mores, particularly the meaning to many Muslim women of being veiled or wearing the chador?  Read the full article at the Sydney Morning Herald.

Surprise Fact:  Muslim women experience more sensual joy in their marriages than Westerners!

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Full Article Here

See also:  Hidden Spirituality– Discussions about hijab are almost always political or sexual.  But what about its spirituality?  After all, it is part of a religion…

Related Articles:

Sociology of the Hijab

Sex in Islam

Hijab Success Stories

Islamic Marriage Articles

State of the Ummah Address

State of the Ummah Address (continued…)

Despite the challenges we face, one indisputable, indubitable truth remains: we have established Allaah’s word as uppermost in every sphere of life. We ARE the best nation.

In America, the richest, most powerful nation in history, Muslims enjoy a higher standard of living, higher average income, and higher education level than the average non-Muslim American.
At every leading university in the world, there are Islamic student groups and masaajid, where the call to Tauheed, Salaa, and Fasting are established.

At these same universities, you will find Muslim professors, female and male, instructing students and conducting groundbreaking research in every field. In every country of the world, Muslim men and women are reaching the highest heights of education. Our doctors, engineers, social scientists, lawyers and businessmen criss-cross the globe in pursuit of halaal rizq (lawful provisions), and find it.

In the fields of primary and secondary education, we are creating innovative ways to incorporate science, mathematics and social studies into an Islamic education. After all, Allaah’s creation is as much an aaya (sign), as the aayaat (signs or “verses”) of his revelation. Islamic private and charter schools put out world-class students, who compete and win in academic competitions. From theater to speech to science, math and spelling, these students learn from the first day of pre-K to value their identity and heritage, and build upon the successes of those who preceded them. They learn and grow and play hand in hand, students of every color, oblivious to color, going back and forth from the Qur-aan to Science, from Arabic to English, from recess and sport to Salaa.

In public and private schools, Muslims also excel in academics and sports. Many valedictorians and salutatorians wear their Islamic names proudly. Muslim students are among the ranks of many academic and community service societies. They have taken the initiative to establish Musalla (place of prayer) in their schools, and many have successfully petitioned for permission to leave on Friday afternoons for Jumua prayers. Muslim athletes rise from the top of their district to Division I to professional leagues in many sports.

Muslim astronauts are establishing Salaa in space. Muslim divers pray at the bottom of the seas and oceans. And at altitudes high in the sky, Muslims turn their faces towards Makka. On land also, at nearly every geographical location, from the months-long days of the poles, to remote islands, masaajid are being built to establish Islam’s five pillars.

The rows of Salaa extend from all around the Ka’ba to the furthest corners of the globe. There is no land in which the number of Muslims is not increasing.

Incompatible with modernity? Nothing could be further from the truth. We have tackled and employed every available technology for the cause of Islam. In the UK alone, there are Islamic theater companies, Islamic satellite channels of many varieties with millions of viewers worldwide, Islamic phone apps with hundreds of thousands of users, a Muslim youth helpline, and many, many Islamic publishing houses.

We have designed Islamic web applications for prayer times, Qur-aan reading and translation, Q&A about Islaam, and many other purposes.

Iran alone is a shining example of Islamic success in science and modernity. It has one of the world’s leading institutes in genetic research. It has launched satellites into space. Its accomplishments and advances in ballistics and nuclear technology are infamous, not because of their menace, but because they were independently and domestically developed.

Our charitable organizations leave no corner of the globe unreached. Wherever there is a need, Muslims are there to fulfill it, asking no reward other than the pleasure of Allaah.

This is not vain bragging. Many, many non-Muslims have taken note, and placed their well-being with Allaah. The Islamification of Britain is a well-known fact. In Latin America, the da’wa efforts of immigrant Muslims, as well as da’wa groups have successfully invited thousands upon thousands of people into Islam, from Mexico to the heart of South America. In American prisons peace and change that Islaam offers has been reaching inmates for centuries, and not only African-Americans.

Let us look at the celebrities who have turned to Islam. There are so many, they have to be sorted by category:

ENTERTAINMENT
Beanie Siegel, Rapper
Busta Rhymez, Rappper
Cat Stevens/Yusuf Islam, Singer/songwriter
Dave Chappelle, Comedian
Everlast, Rapper- House of Pain
Freeway, Rapper
Ghostface Killah/Abdu-rRaheem, Rapper/songwriter- Wu-Tang Clan
Larry Johnson, former NBA basketball player
Loon/Amir Junaid Muhaddith, former rapper
Mos Def, Rapper & Actor
Napoleon/Mutah Wassin Shabazz Beale, Rapper- Tupac’s Outlawz
Q-Tip, Rapper/Songwriter- A Tribe Called Quest

POLITICS
Omar Bongo, former president of Gabon
Robert Crane/Farooq, former adviser to President Richard Nixon, former Deputy Director of US National Security Council
C. Jack Ellis/Hakim Mansour Ellis , Former mayor of Macon, Georgia, USA
Keith Ellison, US Congressman
H. Rap Brown/Jamil al-Amin- former Black Panther, community leader

MEDIA
Ahmad Rashad, Sports Presenter
Yvonne Ridley, Journalist/ Press TV, converted after being kidnapped and released from Taliban!
Lauren Booth, Journalist/Presenter- Press TV, Sister-in-law of former UK Prime Minister Tony Blair

SPORTS
Eric Abidal, French Football/Soccer player- FC Barcelona
Nicolas Anelka, Football player
Muhammad Ali, Former heavyweight boxing champion
Celestino Caballero, Super bantamweight boxing champion
Anthony Mundine, Australian former super middleweight boxing champion
Franck Ribery/Tarek, French Football player
Mike Tyson/Malik Abdul-Aziz, Former heavyweight boxing champion
Sonny Bill Williams, Rugby player, New Zealand All Blacks
Mohammad Yousuf, Record-breaking cricket player, Pakistani national team

This is only a partial list, a mere fraction of the great lives made even greater by Islam. See more here: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_converts_to_Islam

And let us not forget all the prominent Muslims in these fields who have been practicing Islam since birth.

As for Muslim women- subhaana-llaah!- they are in a class by themselves. Here is a brief sampling of what they are accomplishing in all fields of life: http://hijabisdoingthings.tumblr.com/ and https://qahiri.wordpress.com/2011/10/25/hijab-success-stories/.

In the field of human rights, despite unfair media coverage, Muslims lead the way. Every day, Muslims give their lives in the cause of freedom. The despotic regimes that rule many of our lands rule in spite of us. We protest them, and rage against them, and it is those who claim high standards of humanity who help force their tyranny upon us. But we were born free and we will live free! Allaah gave us freedom and dignity, rights that we will never surrender. Our famously-high birthrates are a result of our positive outlook on life, of the joy and togetherness that we feel in our communities, and our indefatigable bright hopes for the future.

Elderly Muslims do not sit alone; their families surround them. Refugee Muslims find refuge in the homes in the hospitable hearts of the more fortunate. Millions of dollars of undeclared charity flow across regions and the world, to family members, strangers, refugees, widows, orphanages and schools. None of this is written in UN or Human Rights Watch reports, but it is written by those better in record-keeping.

The condition of Muslim women, also a media target, is also a bright spot. Everywhere you go, you see Muslim women who are doctors, scientists, engineers, teachers and scholars. They get their education in both Muslim-majority and Western countries, shattering the stereotypes of the liars without comment. We do not deny that some Muslim women are mistreated, sometimes horribly. No, denial is not the way. Let us pledge to strive harder against all injustice. We will not let the minority corrupt the image of the majority, even if the kuffaar plot to do so.

Let them say what they want about the so-called “Arab” slave-trade. It was never on the level or scope of their own atrocities, and even then, only a minority of Arabs were involved, and Arabs themselves constitute only a minority of Muslims. The same monarchs who are considered despots are the greatest emancipators of all time, ending slavery in the Arabian Peninsula with one command. It didn’t even take a war.

None of these accusations of racism- and there is indeed more that some can do to overcome it- diminishes the unifying capability of Islaam. Our Hajj, and our year-round ‘Umra, unite Muslims from all over the globe, of every tongue and color, around the same worship, the same message, the same hope, the same God: Allaah, the One, al-Qahhaar. It is the largest, international gathering in the world, and the most calm, serene, enlightened and peaceful. Every man and woman is the same, dressed, poor or rich, famous or obscure, in the same clothes, entranced by the same tear-inspiring rituals. This is a unity, love and humanity that even the vilest naysayer can deny.

It is indeed telling that of some 10 Muslim Nobel Prize winners, at least 5 were winners of the “Peace” Prize…

Allaah is the Universally Merciful, His Rasuul (saAws) was a mercy to all Realms, and Islaam is the greatest mercy ever bestowed on mankind and jinn. You, Muslim, have been chosen; rejoice!

Allaahu Akbar!

Raise your head with pride, O Muslim!
Raise your voice with Takbeer!
Raise your arm against injustice and oppression!

You are Muslim. Allaah has chosen YOU!

Live, O Muslims, and love!

Do not ever be discouraged. Do not ever be afraid. Stand firmly on this foundation. Survey the past present and future from atop Islam’s 5 pillars. Grasp even more firmly the everlasting handhold that will never break.

Let your soul soar!
Never let anyone tell you to fold in your wings. Fly high!! They’ll never be able to bring you down. Never look down, never look back, for this high no fear is in our way, and our love will only breathe peace…

asSalaamu ‘alaykum wa Rahmatullaahi wa Barakaatuhu

Women in Islam

Women in Islam: baby factories? Sex machines? Punching bags? Nameless, faceless walking inferiority complexes?

Try judges, doctors, businesswomen, scholars, poetesses, warriors and philanthropists…

This is adapted from the introduction of:

Ghadanfar, Mahmood. Great Women of Islam. Translated by Jamila Qawi. Darussalam: Riyadh. 2001

Exploits and Achievements of the Sahaabiyaat (Women Companions)
The Sahaabiyaat (Women Companions) were the noble women who were the contemporaries of the Prophet Muhammad (sAá&s). They were the pure, virtuous crusaders of Islaam, and were honored during the very lifetime of the Prophet Muhammad with the prediction that they would live forever in Pardise in the Afterlife. Their achievements and influence are found in every sphere of that momentous period in the history of the world, when the whole of humanity would be transfigured forever. They were as active in religion as in politics, as courageous in war as in the peaceful and persuasive propagation of the teaching of Islaam. These noble selfless women could be found in the battlefields among the foremost ranks of those taking part in Jihaad. They were to be found in the political arena, in the field of education, in the courts of Islaamic jurisprudence, in the interpretation orf Sharee’a, in trade and commerce, in agriculture, in medicine and in nursing. In short there was no sphere that did not benefit from their intellect, their wisdom and their gentle yet firm strength of character.

Religious Achievements
Among the many services that one can render to Islaam is to fight in the battlefields. Few, if any, examples of such zeal, determination, perseverance and courage can be found in history. When the disbelievers attacked the Muslims during the Battle of Úhud, only a few, devoted followers were left to fight with the Prophet Muhammad. At this critical stage the Women Companion Umm Ámmaarah shielded him with her body and warded off the enemy with her sword as well as her bow and arrows. When Qaniah got within striking distance of the Prophet Muhammad, it was she who bore the brunt of his attack. She had a deep wound on her shoulder, yet she continued to attack him with her sword. But he was well protected and she could not make a dent in his armor. Against Musailama al-Kath-thaab she fought so courageously that she suffered a dozen wounds and lost an arm.

In the Battle of Ahzaab (a/k/a the Battle of the Trench), the Companion Safiyya displayed brilliant military strategy in handling the Jewish attack and slew one of the attackers. In the Battle of Hunain Umm Salim set out to attack the enemy with her sword.

In the Battle of Yattle of Yarmuuk, Asmaa’ bint Abu Bakr, Umm Abbaan, Umm Hakeem, Khawla, Hind and the Mother of the Believers Juwairiah displayed extraordinary valor. Asmaa bint Yazeed killed nine enemy soldiers. In the year 28 Hijri, Umm Haraam took part in the attack on Cyprus.

The Mother of the Believers Áa-isha, Umm Salim and Umm Salit were among those who were very proficient at nursing the wounded.

The Sahaabiyaat usually accompanied the Prophet Muhammad on his military expeditions and took part in battles both on land and at sea. Besides taking an active part in the war, there were many other services that the Sahaabiyaat performed, like giving medical aid to the soldiers, nursing the wounded on the battlefields and providing food and water to the wounded and thirsty. Standing side by side with the soldiers they would hand them arrows, nurse the wounded and generally help to kep up the morale of the army. They also helped to carry the martyred and the wounded back to al-Madeena. Umm ‘Atiya, for example, took part in seven battles and fought during the rule of Khaleefa Úmar al-Faruuq. The women and even the children also used to help bury the dead.

They spread the message of the new revelation and through example converted many of the disbelievers to Islaam. It was Faatima bint Khattaab who converted her brother Úmar bin Khattaab; he was to become one of the bravest and most faithful of the Companions of the Prophet Muhammad, and his second Khaleefa. It was Umm Saalim who influenced Abu Talha, and it was Umm Hakeem who convinced her husband, Íkrima to accept Islam. Umm Shareek Dosia very discreetly worked amond the women of the tribe of Quraish to spread Islaam.

Another aspect of missionary work is to preserve the religion in its pristine form, and protect it from any modifications, impurities and innovations that may creep in because of cultural or traditional practices already prevalent in society, or in other societies believers encounter. This very important work of preserving the purity of Islaam was performed by many of the Sahaabiyaat; most prominent amongst them was Áa-isha.

In the year 35 Hijri, when Khaleefa Úthmaan was martyred and there was chaos and confusion over who was next in line of succession, it was she who brought unity into the ranks by influencing the Muslims of Basra (Íraaq), and Makka.

Leading the prayers and sounding the Athaan (the call to Salaa (“prayer”)), is another important aspect of religious life. Although women cannot lead men in Salaa, they can lead assemblies of women. Many women contemporaries of the Prophet Muhammad performed this task. Áa-isha, Umm Saalim, Umm Waraqa and Sa’da bint Qamaamah were some of the most prominent among these. In fact, Umm Waraqa turned her house into a place of Salaa for women; the athaan was given there by a female mu-ath-than for the women’s congregation, and Umm Waraqa performed the duties of the Imaam in leading the Salaa.

Political Achievements
The Sahaabiyaat (Women Companions played a prominent role in politics as well. Khaleefa (Caliph) ‘Umar (rAa) so valued Shifaa’ bint ‘Abdullaah (rAa) for her political intelligence an insight that he very often consulted with her. He ofter gave her the responsibility of running the affairs of state relating to trade and commerce. Before the Hijra (migration) of the Prophet Muhammad (sAaws) to al-Madeena, the disbelievers wanted to lay siege to his house. It was Ruqayya bint Saifee (rAa) who warned him. The Prophet then secretly left for al-Madeena, leaving ‘Ali (rAa) asleep in his place.

Vast political rights are granted to women in Islaam. A woman even has the right to grant shelter to an enemy, if she so wishes. A historian, Abuu Daawuud, relates that Umm Haani (rAa) the sister of ‘Ali, had given refuge to an enemy disbeliever and the Prophet Muhammad said,

“If you have guaranteed sanctuary and safety to a person, then we stand by you.”

This is the law of Islaam, that the Imaam or leader has to stand by the guarantee offered by a woman.

Education, Knowledge and the Fine Arts
There are various subjects, an understanding of which are essential for a thorough knowledge of Islaam and its principles. Qiraa-a (the correct way of reading the Qur-aan- elocution and enunciation), interpretation and commentary, Sharee’a, Fiqh, and study of Hadeeth, are all important aspects of Islaamic studies. Many of the women Companions were experts in these fields. ‘Aa-isha memorized the Qur-aan, as did Hafsa, Umm Salma, and Umm Waraqa. Hind bint Aseed, Umm Hishaam bint Haritha, Zaida bint Hayyaan and Umm Sa’d bint Sa’d all knew portions of the Qur-aan by heart. The latter used to regularly lecture on the Qur-aan. In the sensitive interpretation of Hadeeth, all were expert, but ‘Aa-isha and Umm Salma were exceptional masters of interpretation and commentary. With the former, 2,210 Ahaadeeth are associated and 378 with the latter.

Umm Salma used to recite the Qur-aan with Tajweed, which was a difficult skill and much appreciated.

‘Aa-isha was an expert on interpretation and commentary due to her close association with the Prophet Muhammad. Much of the Book of Tafseer (Interpretation0 in Saheeh Muslim contains narrations from her.

Asmaa bint Abuu Bakr (Sister of ‘Aa-isha, Umm ‘Atiya, Umm Haani and Faatima bint Qays also had extensive knowledge of Ahaadeeth.

In Islamic jurisprudence (Fiqh) ‘Aa-isha’s verdicts could fill several volumes. The same could be said of Umm Salma’s recorded verdicts.

The invaluable verdicts of Safiyya, Hafsa, Umm Habeeba, Juwayria, Faatima bint Muhammad, Umm Shareek, Umm ‘Atiya, Asmaa bint Abuu Bakr, Layla bint Qaa-if, Khawla bint Tuyayt, Umm Dardaa, ‘Athika bint Zayd, Sahla bint Suhayl, Faatima bint Qays, Zaynab bint Jahsh, Umm Salma, Umm Ayman and Umm Yuusuf could fill several volumes.

‘Aa-isha was also well versed in the law of inheritance and many renowned and respected Companions consulted her on the finer points of the law.

Besides being masters of Islaamic law and of the finer points of Fiqh, the women Companions had skill and ability in other branches of knowledge. Asmaa bint Yazeed bin Sakan was an expert in making speech. Asmaa bint ‘Umays was famous for her interpretation of dreams. Several female Companions were noted for their skill in medicine an dsurgery. Aslamia Umm Mattaa’a, Umm Kabsha, Hamna bint Jahsh, Mu’aatha, Ammayma, Umm Ziad, Rabee’a bint Mu’awath, Umm ‘Atiya and Umm Saalim were some of them, well known for their skills. Rufayda Aslamia’s tent, set up as a surgery with all the necessary instruments, was situated close to the Prophet’s Masjid in Madeena.

The era before the advent of the Prophet was known as the age of illiteracy, but some of these wordly women were highly educated and skilled in the arts of penmanship an dcalligraphy. Shifaa bint ‘Abdullaah learned to read and write even during these dark ages and was celebrated for her skill at this art. Hafsa, Umm Kulthuum bint ‘Uqba and Kareema bint Miqdaad were all literate. ‘Aa-isha and Umm Salma could not write but they could read. Both of them were blessed with remarkable memories and inquiring minds; and because of their close association with the Prophet many of the authentic Ahaadeeth originated from them.

The arts were not neglected by any means. Some of the most noted poetesses were Sa’di, Safiya, ‘Atika, bint Zaid, Hind bint Athaatha, Umm Ayman, Kabasha bint Raafee’a, Ummaama Maridia, Hind bint Haarith, Zaynab bint ‘Awaam Azdi, Maymuuna and Ruqayya. A book of verses by Khansaa, the best known among them has been published.

The daughters of the Ansaar would compose verses and poems for festive occasions and sing. According to the Hadeeth narrated by Fre’a bint Ma’auth, they recited their poems in the presence of the Prophet, who had appreciated their literary skills.

Industry, Trade and Commerce
The women Companions also practiced the practical or survival skills as we know them today. Agriculture, business, trade and commerce, writing, editing, cottage industries like weaving, manufacture and designing of clothes- all these are mentioned in the Musnad (collection of Ahaadeeth) of Imaam Ahmad.

Agriculture was not so common, but was mainly practiced in the rural fertile areas around al-Madeena, especially by the women of the Ansaar. Among the immigrants, or Muhaajireen as they were known, Asmaa also practiced farming.

Some of the Sahaabiyaat also ran businesses. Khadeeja was a very successful businesswoman and used to send trading caravans to different countries. Khaula, Maleeka, Thaqafiya and bint Fakhariya used to trade in the oriental oil-based perfumes known as ‘Itar. Sauda operated a leather tanning industry.

Thus there was no sphere of activity- social or cultural- that was not influenced and assisted by the presence of these great ladies. Was this not the best generation of women on the planet? This level was not even approached until centuries later by any other society. Let us all strive after this example.May Allaah have mercy on their souls!

Allaah Will Be Pleased with them and they with Him.

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